I Love ABA!

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This blog is about my experiences, thoughts, and opinions on ABA. My career as an ABA provider is definitely a passion and a joy, and I love what I do.

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Saturday, September 1, 2012

Aspergers Syndrome: “Milder” Autism





Aspergers syndrome, named after Dr. Hans Aspergers who first described the syndrome, is considered by many to be a “milder” form of Autism. Aspergers Syndrome is often depicted in the media as a socially quirky guy that has trouble talking to girls.





It’s not quite that simple.


While for some individuals with Autism, they do well in school (or VERY well in school), have friends, get married, etc., remember that Autism is a spectrum. One individual with Aspergers may have a high degree of life satisfaction, while another individual may struggle greatly in areas of social skills, emotional regulation, and communication.

With that being said, for individuals on the spectrum who are impacted more significantly there is somewhat of a myth floating around that "Autism" is more severe and in need of treatment, while "Aspergers" just means quirky or odd. No, definitely not true. Either Autism or Aspergers can represent with low, moderate, or significant impairments. 

In terms of aggression, non-compliance, social difficulties, failing grades, or anxiety, someone with Aspergers can have just as much difficulty in these areas as someone with a diagnosis of Autism. The common misconception that Aspergers is a kind of “Autism-Lite” has unfortunately led many parents and educators to believe that kids with Aspergers will be just fine and don’t need any help. However, I have worked with children/adolescents with Aspergers who had challenging, persistent behavioral problems, self-stimulatory behaviors, or significant social difficulties that were often exacerbated by the child's cognitive abilities. In other words, the child is different and has no friends and they know it.

Most of us sat next to a child in school, worked with someone, or have a cousin so-and-so who probably has Aspergers Syndrome. Even without an official diagnosis it is often clear that these individuals have a lot of difficulty with tasks and behaviors that most people find easy. Due to their unique affect and interests, individuals with Aspergers often get labels such as “geek”, “weird”, or “loner. People may not know the person has an Autism disorder, but they can tell that something is off.
The downside to having a less apparent form of Autism is that individuals with Aspergers Syndrome sometimes get dismissed or marginalized as just being odd, and aren’t recognized as having a true disorder.

Many people wonder what’s the difference between a high functioning child with Autism and Aspergers Syndrome. Clinical diagnosis isn’t quite that finite. Research does not support a difference between high functioning Autism (HFA) and Aspergers, and Asperger Disorder has been eliminated from the most recent DSM (DSM-V). Autism, Aspergers, and PDD-NOS are now all synonymous with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

The main way an individual with Aspergers will differ from an individual with Autism is in the area of language development. These kiddos often have typical or even advanced language development, even though they may still have significant social deficits, and narrow/restricted interests.

Children with Aspergers often have behavioral issues that can be helped with ABA Therapy. As an ABA professional, my “Aspie” kids are usually much more verbal, have a broader skill set, and may be easier to engage (some can be quite moody). My Aspie clients will easily talk to me about their day, and indicate their needs and wants without needing to be prompted. Aspie kiddos can be very fun to work with, because they tend to be straight shooters. They say whatever is on their mind and may feel no need to self-edit….the results can be hilarious. :-)
Aspie kids can appear to be typically developing kids. In a classroom setting, it may be difficult to point out the student with Aspergers. That is, until its time for social interaction and then it becomes more obvious. Or, if the classroom schedule or routine is changed without warning. This is why it can sometimes take close observation from an experienced professional to determine if a child is just “quirky” or if they have Aspergers Syndrome.

Here are a few more Aspergers-specific tendencies:

*        Aspie kids take things very literally, and are concrete thinkers- Similar to Rose from Golden Girls, Aspie kids don’t respond well to sarcasm. They have a hard time determining when someone is teasing or joking with them, and are very rule oriented. If the teacher says that everyone in the classroom must line up, the Aspie kid is the one who will turn around and yell at the student who steps out of line to tie his shoe—to the Aspie child, a rule is being broken. And that is NOT okay.
*        Aspie kids may have a very hard time socializing or making friends- Aspie kids often want to socialize, which is a huge difference from many classic Autism kids. Aspie kids have the desire to engage their peers but lack the skills to do so. The Aspie kid is the one at the lunch table who drones on and on about rare dinosaur breeds, and doesn’t realize that the other students find him boring, or a nuisance.
*        Aspie kiddos tend to have an Aspie parent- Many times a child with Autism can come from a family with no history of Autism. An Aspie child almost always has an Aspie parent: usually the dad. The parents generally are unaware that one of them (or both) is on the spectrum, and this can sometimes be a delicate conversation to have. Aspie dads generally have very complicated, technical jobs (like an engineer, or IT person), are awkward socially ( give intense eye contact, stand too close to you), and can be prone to angry outbursts.
*        Aspie kids tend to have problems with authority- This doesn’t come from a place of defiance, but as rule-followers and logical thinkers everything has to make sense to an Aspie kid. You can’t tell these kids to do something “because I said so”……that won’t work. Rules must make sense, and demands must be logical. The Aspie kid is the student in the classroom who gets in trouble every week for arguing with the teacher and correcting her grammar. To the Aspie kid, it doesn’t matter that it’s rude to correct an adult.
*        Aspie kids talk like very short adults- Due to a concrete understanding of language and advanced verbal skills, Aspie kids select and use their words carefully. Their vocal affect may sound stilted, or as if they are reading a speech off of note cards. They avoid lazy communicating, such as using slang or contractions. Instead of saying “I’m gonna’ go to karate after school, yay!” they would say something like “When school is finished I have a karate class. I like karate very much, and I am excellent at it.” 
Just like a child with Autism, Aspie kids can benefit greatly from routine, structure, and order in their environment. Aspie kids also respond well to visual supports, particularly in the classroom. 
Bigger obstacles with an Aspie kid will be teaching social skills and emotional regulation. The fact that the child has a form of Autism makes navigating social waters and controlling emotions difficult. Add on top of that a concrete thinker who tends to mentally store massive amounts of information about very specific topics, and they won’t exactly be King or Queen of the playground (Girls can, and do, have Aspergers Syndrome even though most literature and information refers to boys).

If you suspect that your child or student might have Aspergers Syndrome, then I’d definitely recommend seeking a diagnosis from a qualified professional. Since Aspie kids can be bright, verbal, and friendly, parents tend to think no diagnosis or treatment is necessary.....they assume their child will be just fine as they get older. However, often these individuals still may need significant assistance with things such as: making friends, finding employment, handling change and transitions, attending college, and being a fully functioning member of society.



**Quick Tip: Tony Attwood is a respected leader in the field of Autism, and most of his publications focus extensively on Aspergers Syndrome. If you would like more information about Aspergers Syndrome I recommend his website.

7 comments:

  1. As the mother of a 23 year old with Aspergers, I can identify with all your above points; however, how does one fine an appropriate - and effective - therapist for a young adult Aspie? Also, where can one find a social skills group for this population so he can make friends?
    Thanks!
    Dr. King

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    Replies
    1. Hello Dr King,

      This will vary greatly depending on where you live. Unfortunately, ABA resources can be wonderful, mediocre, or non-existent depending on location. It can be much more difficult to locate quality ABA services if the individual is over the age of 12, but its not impossible. It will just take some research and legwork.
      I would recommend contacting agencies, regional centers (if you have those where you live), and support groups in your area. Connect with other parents raising individuals with Autism (this is always your best resource) and also check with any Autism Society or volunteer groups to see what services or professionals they can connect you with. If you cannot locate ABA therapists who offer services to adults you may need to hire an inexperienced person and then locate a Consultant to train them, and create a treatment plan for therapy.
      As far as social groups, in my local area there is an agency that provides ABA to children but they also have a volunteer run social group for teens and college age adults with Autism, to get together and connect. Sometimes I encourage parents to think about organizing social groups themselves if they cannot find any in their local area, or looking for a few other parents interested in creating social opportunities. I have many clients who would LOVE to arrange social groups/play date type scenarios for their children but they just dont know how to do so, or they dont know any other parents who would be interested. So if the resources in your local area leave much to be desired, you may want to consider creating something with a few other parents.

      Good luck to you!

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  2. How does one find an appropriate therapist for an adult?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi there!

      Please see my above response on locating ABA professionals for adults.

      Delete
  3. Interesting. Cool post. :) Not meaning to be rude, but you just put attending college and finding employment in a list of simple things, and usually they aren't really simple, autie or NT (neurotypical). :)
    Nice blog. :)

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    Replies
    1. Yes, you are quite right. It may not be that "simple" at all!
      Thanks for commenting :-)

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