Saturday, December 8, 2012

How to Write a Social Story








A Social Story is a teaching tool often used in ABA therapy to help teach a child about a desired behavior. A social story is a short story designed to teach a specific concept. The story should be individualized to the child, tailored to their interests, and have a specific goal (or goals) that you are trying to teach, reinforce, or generalize.  It may take repeated presentations of the social story for the child to apply the information described in the story to their own life and change their own behavior. 
* The research on the effectiveness of Social Stories supports its use when part of a comprehensive treatment package, and when certain pre-requisite skills are in place, such as listening comprehension. A review of current literature is recommended before implementing Social Stories with a client.

Examples of social story topics could include: Privacy, Lining Up in the Classroom, Flapping My Hands, I Have a New Sister, Flying On an Airplane, Going to Burger King, When Grandma Comes to Visit, Riding in The Car, Is That a Stranger?, We’re Moving To a New House, When I Feel Angry, etc.

 I will typically write a social story for a child who needs to know the unspoken or implicit rules of a particular social skill, such as a child who has learned to play board games but acts very rude and obnoxious when he wins. That’s a situation that is ideal for a social story because the child can perform the skill (playing a board game with a peer), but the child isn’t picking up on the implicit skill of good sportsmanship.

Social stories are another one of those ABA materials that you could purchase, but it isn’t necessary to because:
-Social stories are super easy to create
-Social stories should be individualized to the situation and child, and be incredibly specific

A good social story should include the four basic sentence types recommended by Carol Gray: Descriptive, Perspective, Affirmative, and Directive.
Descriptive sentence: “My name is Josiah and tomorrow is my first day of school”
Perspective sentence: “When I listen to the teacher and follow directions that makes my teacher feel happy”
Affirmative: “When I want to answer a question, I will raise my hand until the teacher calls on me. This is the right thing to do”
Directive: “I will try to remember to raise my hand to answer a question, and not to yell out the answer”


Here is an example of a social story I wrote for a client a few months ago. This social story was for an adolescent girl who had a behavior of stripping off her clothing in public or on the school bus. The specific social behavior we wanted to teach was privacy.



Privacy



When I need to change my clothes I do it in private. Private means that I am alone or with my family, and not in a public place where lots of people can see me. 


Everyone likes having privacy sometimes, like when they use the bathroom, or change their clothing





When I need to change my clothes I should:



1.       Get my clothes and go into the bathroom or my room

2.     Close the door

3.     Close the curtains on my windows






I can change my clothes in front of Mom or Dad. That is okay. I cannot change my clothes on the bus, or at the store. That is not okay.





When I go into my room or into the bathroom to change my clothes that makes my Mom and Dad feel happy, and they say “I'm proud of you!” 







**Quick Tips:

  • As much as possible include actual photos of the child in the social story. I have found its much more effective and intriguing to the child to read a social story that has pictures of their family, home, school, and own face inside of it.
  •  Tailor the story to the child’s likes and interests. I wrote a social story a few weeks ago for an ASD teenager who loves Ariel from The Little Mermaid. This teen was having break outs on her face due to not properly washing her face every day. So her social story talked about how Ariel always washes her face twice a day, and always listens to her mom. Very quickly after the social story was introduced, this teen is now happily complying with washing her face daily.
  •   Use positive language. Focus on what the child should be doing, and avoid overemphasizing their current social deficits. Especially for older and higher functioning children, they can take criticism very hard and often hyper-focus in on negative statements. Instead of saying “If I like a girl, I cant follow her around or she will think Im weird”, the social story could say “If I like a girl, I can ask her about her interests or give her a compliment”.
  •   Keep it short and sweet. Most of the social stories I write are 1-2 pages. I have seen some multi-page social stories that bored the poor child to tears. If the child wont sit and attend long enough to hear the whole social story, how can they benefit from it? 
  •  Write from the perspective of the child. Its important to use language and explanations that will make sense to the child based on their cognitive functioning level. If the child is older and higher functioning its okay to say “When I do my homework, that makes my teacher feel happy and proud of me”. If the child is younger or lower functioning you may need to focus on outward behaviors and not internal emotions or thoughts, such as “When I do my homework, my teacher smiles and says: Good job, Josiah. Then I get a sticker on my token chart”.


Great website with lots of social stories:


4 comments:

  1. What a wonderful blogg, such a clever creative way to communicate, thank you for your knowledge and sharing it!!!

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    Replies
    1. Thanks so much for checking out my blog! :-)

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  2. Hi there. What are the steps to follow when we introduce a social story to the child? Who reads it first?

    Thank you.

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  3. Hello there,

    If the child can read and is vocal, then I would typically have the child read the story themselves as we look at it together. If not, I will read the story to the child, being sure to highlight the important concepts of the book as I read. I would practice reading the story before the event the story is about, such as a trip to the dentist. We would read the story before going to the dentist. For the purpose of generalization, I would also act out or do a role play of the event at other times. So we would read the story and pretend we are at the dentists office, and then I would ask the child what do we do at the dentist office, how do we behave, what does the dentist do, etc, while pointing to the important concepts in the story.

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