Thursday, August 18, 2011

What Is ABA?


Photo source: www.littleleaves.org


If you are not currently working as an ABA Therapist or the parent of a child who receives ABA Therapy you might be wondering :

"What is ABA??"


Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is the science of changing socially significant behavior. 
ABA has its origins in the early 1900’s with the scientific work of B.F. Skinner. In its early days, ABA research was about studying how individuals and animals respond under certain conditions (Operant Conditioning), and had nothing to do with Autism or special needs. It was simply a science of understanding how behaviors are formed, established, and how they can be changed.

 It was not until the groundbreaking study by Ivar Lovaas (published in 1987) with a group of Autistic children that what we now think of as "ABA Therapy" began to take shape. 
At that time in history, Autism was considered to be an unchangeable condition and parents were advised to institutionalize their child as soon as possible to receive lifelong care. 
Lovaas’ study included 59 children ages 3 and under, and compared the impact of high quality intensive ABA Therapy, high quality less intensive ABA Therapy, and typical special education services but no ABA Therapy. The results of the study were amazing: almost half of the children who received the high quality intensive ABA Therapy became indistinguishable from same age peers (symptoms greatly improved), and in follow up studies this group of children maintained these gains well into adolescence.  
       
     Replication studies since 1987 have repeated Lovass’ results over, and over….and over again. Also, advancements in technology and further scientific discoveries have fine-tuned ABA into a highly sophisticated tool for effective and long- lasting behavior change.



     In the mid -1990’s, a book written by a parent of a child with Autism (“Let Me Hear Your Voice”, by Catherine Maurice) pushed this substantial body of scientific knowledge out into the world, and quickly this “new ABA therapy” began to be sought out by parents of special needs children all over the world.

     Explosion in public demand led to new funding sources, new populations to serve, and the profession of Behavior Analysis (the BACB) was born in order to properly train and equip individuals to be practitioners of the science of ABA.

     
       Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) has become widely accepted as one of THE most effective treatments for behavior change, although many people still think ABA treatment is only for individuals with Autism. ABA is much broader than that, and should not be reduced down to only being effective with one specific population.
      You have likely heard ABA & ABA Therapy used interchangeably, but from reading this post you now know that ABA is a scientific study of behavior. Now let's talk about ABA Therapy.







 ABA Therapy is an umbrella term that covers many styles of teaching/treatment, such as Verbal Behavior (VB), Natural Environment Teaching (NET),  and Discrete Trial Training (DTT). ABA professionals mainly work in the areas of behavior reduction or skill acquisition.

There's 2 important things to know about ABA Therapy:

  •  The research of B.F. Skinner - ABA therapy is based in the research and life work of B.F. Skinner, the Father of Operant Conditioning. Operant Conditioning states that behaviors that contact reinforcement are strengthened, and behaviors that contact punishment are weakened. ABA is the process of manipulating the environment (what the individual finds reinforcing or punishing) in order to increase or decrease behaviors.
  • The research of Ivar Lovaas -  Dr Lovaas' study in 1987 that helped to show the world that children with significant social, cognitive, and/or communicative impairments can learn, and can greatly improve utilizing behavioral treatment.  The key is that the ABA treatment must be early and intensive for maximum benefit (although improvement is always possible).

 ABA Therapy incorporates behavioral techniques such as reinforcement, prompting, consistent consequences, and extinction. Strengths are generalized and expanded upon, and deficits are replaced with skills in order to help the individual be more successful in their environment. Behavior reduction and skill acquisition are closely connected when it comes to ABA Therapy; typically being simultaneously targeted.

 ABA Therapy has decades of rigorous research to support its efficacy, and people all over the world use intensive ABA principles in order to teach new behaviors to children, adolescents, and adults.

Being a behavioral therapeutic method, ABA Therapy focuses on what is observable and measurable. Precise and frequent data collection drives the course of treatment.
 ABA Therapy can take place in the home setting, school setting, community setting(s), or at a center/clinic. ABA Therapy is usually provided by ABA therapists, and the therapists should be supervised by a Consultant (usually a Board Certified Behavior Analyst).

ABA Therapy focuses on understanding behavior by its function, combined with examining the environment in order to develop a comprehensive strategy for behavior reduction.


Examples of ABA Therapy goals include:

Increase attending behaviors
Improve fine motor skills
Extinguish self-injurious behaviors (SIB's)
Reduce tantrumming behavior
Increase play behaviors with siblings
Generalize skills across environments
Successful homework completion
Increasing compliance to adult directives
Provide parent education in the area of behavior management 
Intensive, comprehensive treatment (often appropriate for early intervention learners presenting with broad skill deficits and intensive problem behavior)
Brief, focused treatment (often appropriate for advanced learners presenting with a few areas of skill deficit, or moderate problem behavior)



If you would like more information about ABA or ABA Therapy, please see any of the links below:

http://autism.about.com/od/alllaboutaba/a/abaoverview.htm
http://www.lovaas.com/about.php
http://www.abainternational.org/ba.asp
http://www.autism.com/index_b.asp
http://www.asatonline.org/treatment/treatments/applied.htm
http://www.autismspeaks.org/what-autism/treatment/applied-behavior-analysis-aba
 http://www.christinaburkaba.com/History.htm



**Quick Tip: Below are two amazing resources I highly recommend to anyone wanting to learn more about the application of ABA-

 The Cooper book  (often called the "White Book")  is a more technical guide that I recommend for professionals.
Applied Behavior Analysis by Cooper, Heron, & Heward

The Catherine Maurice book is a very parent-friendly resource to learn about ABA Therapy from the point of view of a parent.
Let Me Hear Your Voice by Catherine Maurice

4 comments:

  1. I love this blog, I'm based in the UK, and you've inspired me to start my own! -https://abaconnect.wordpress.com

    ReplyDelete
  2. This is an informative and very well executed blog. We are getting ready to hire an ABA Therapist and the info and definitions you provided are a great guideline to help us carefully select the best candidate. Thank you and keep up the great work!😀

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Good luck finding excellent staff, and thanks for checking out the blog! :-)

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