My ABA Glossary

This glossary is a collection of ABA terms that are helpful to know as a professional or parent.

I try to keep my blog jargon-free because I want it to be accessible to many. However from time to time I may use some clinical terms on the blog, so the glossary below should help to translate some of the ABA-speak.

ABA Glossary

ABA- Applied Behavior Analysis is an established science that goes much farther than Autism. If all you know of ABA is a therapy for young children with Autism, I recommend you further your reading and study of the field. ABA at its core is a way to teach, maintain, or reduce behaviors. ABA is an umbrella term that can cover many specific and unique strategies. Some examples include Incidental Teaching, Discrete Trial Training, and Verbal Behavior. Most classrooms and many non-ABA practitioners utilize ABA strategies such as shaping, visual schedules, First/Then schedules, prompting, video modeling, or A-B-C data collection.

ABA Therapist- This term pops up in older posts on my blog, as the RBT credential is fairly new. It refers to  a professional who provides ABA therapy in a direct staff role. Other similar terms can include ABA tutor, ABA technician, Services provider, etc. 

ABBLS-R - (pronounced A-Bulls) This is an assessment tool created by Dr. Partington to help guide instruction, curriculum planning, and to target critical learning skills for Autistics or other Developmental Disabilities. 

ABC's of Behavior- Also known as the Three Term Contingency, ABC's of behavior is a tool used to determine the function of a behavior in order to develop an intervention. The A is for antecedent, the B is the actual behavior, and C is the consequence.

Acquisition Task – A target that is in the process of being taught. This behavior is not yet a known skill.

 Autism Spectrum Disorders- According to the DSM- V, these are defined as persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts, and there is an impact rating system of Level 1, 2, or 3, based on the intensity of supports the individual needs to function in their daily environments/meet daily demands and expectations. Basically, its important to know that Autism is a spectrum, and no 2 individuals are precisely the same

Autistic- Although some professionals continue to use person first language (e.g. individual with Autism), many advocates and Autistic support groups have stated that the preferred term is "Autistic". However, there can be variability within the Autistic community of which term is preferred.

BCBA or BCBA-D/BCaBA- This is the board certification required for a person to become a Behavior Analyst.  In many states or with insurance companies, only BCBAs are recognized as being properly authorized to oversee, manage, or supervise ABA programs. The BCaBA denotes the person is at an associate level, and must work under a BCBA. BCaBA's usually have less training or experience, although this isn’t always the case. Becoming certified is a lengthy process that takes much dedication, focus, and graduate level coursework. BCBAs and BCaBAs typically supervise direct staff and design the intervention and treatment plan.

RBT - Registered Behavior Technician. For direct level staff, this is a credential that denotes the person has met specific education and experience standards, and starting in 12/2015, that the person has passed a rigorous exam. RBT's typically implement a treatment plan designed by a BCBA or BCaBA.

Behavior - To be called a behavior, it must be observable and/or measurable. In the field we refer to something called the "Dead Man's Test": If a dead man can do it, it ain't behavior. So "being quiet" is not a behavior because a dead person can "be quiet".

Chaining – Used to teach multi-step skills in which the steps involved are defined through task analysis, and each separate step is taught to link together the total "chain".  Can be either done by backward, forward, or total task analyses.

Chronological Age/ Developmental Age- Chronological age is the actual age calculated by birthdate. A developmental age is based on level of functioning/cognitive ability, and adaptive skills. For example a 7 year old child diagnosed with Autism could have the developmental age of a 3 year old. A Pediatrician or Developmental Psychologist can help you determine your child's developmental age, or if you work with a BCBA they can assess your child to help determine developmental age.

Co-Morbidity- This means having multiple diagnoses as the same time, such as being diagnosed with Autism, OCD, and an Anxiety Disorder. Autism often co-occurs with other diagnoses.

Consequence- In behavior analytic terms, a consequence is simply what happens after the behavior. Consequences can be good or bad (or nothing).

Consultant- Describes anyone who creates the treatment/behavioral plans, trains and supervises staff, and may or may not assist with hiring staff. Typically this is a BCBA level individual with extensive experience and training in running an ABA program, who works independently of an agency or company.

Contained Classroom- A contained, or self -contained, classroom is a classroom that has only special needs children. These classrooms have a smaller teacher to student ratio than an inclusive classroom. Typically these classes are taught by Special Education teachers and include at least 1 specially trained paraprofessional.

Developmentally Delayed-A child or infant may be given a diagnosis of DD when they are not progressing as they should be and aren’t meeting developmental milestones such as crawling, sitting up, using a pincer grasp, talking/babbling, etc. However, adolescents or adults sometimes receive this diagnosis far later in life than they should have received it.

Discrete Trial Training (DTT) - A specific method of instruction in which a task is isolated and taught to an individual across multiple trials (repetition teaching). A specific opportunity to respond is presented, and a specific response from the learner is expected (Teacher: "Stand up". Learner: (stands up). Teacher: "Nice standing!").

Discriminative stimulus (SD) - This can be a demand/question or directive given to obtain a specific response, or a naturally occurring signal that reinforcement is available. For example, if you are waiting for an important phone call about a bonus at work then every time your phone rings it becomes a potential SD of reinforcement (your bonus).  

DSM- The Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders is used by a variety of professionals across the world to diagnoses or treat individuals. The DSM is basically a handy manual that catalogs all mental conditions, disorders, and syndromes and explains how to diagnose each one. It is regularly updated, and professionals reference the newest version when discussing, explaining, or understanding diagnoses.

Echoic- This is a Verbal Behavior term. An echoic is being able to vocally imitate upon request.

Echolalia- "Echoing" or imitating what is heard, can be immediate or delayed. E.g., if you say to the learner "Want to go outside?" and they respond "Go outside?", that is echolalia. Many individuals with Autism exhibit echolalia, but engaging in echolalia does not automatically mean someone has Autism. 

Elopement- Elopement is wandering, or running away, either alone or without caregiver knowledge. This behavior can be very dangerous, particularly for Autistics who do not speak or respond to the language of others.

Expressive- Expressive means speaker behavior, and refers to tasks that require a vocal response such as singing or talking.

Extinction – The withholding of reinforcement for a previously reinforced behavior, resulting in reduction of that behavior.

Extinction burst - The increase in frequency and/or intensity of behavior in the early stages of extinction.

FBA- Functional Behavior Assessment. This is the process by which behavioral interventions are created. An FBA is intended to determine the function (or the reason) for a behavior, and then create an intervention based on that function. A Functional Analysis (FA) involves manipulating the environment to understand the behavior, while a Functional Behavior Assessment involves things like observation, interview, and collecting ABC data.

Fine Motor Skills - These are the activities that require the coordination and movement of the smaller muscles of the body, especially those of the hand. 

Field Size (teaching term) - During a teaching trial, this refers to how much stimuli to have presented in an array. E.g. "Teach the animal 'cat' in a field size of 2-3". This example means that the target stimuli ("cat" flashcard or photo) would be presented in an array of 2-3 other cards, during a teaching trial.

Generalization - Term used to describe the ability to learn a skill in one situation and be able to apply it flexibly to other similar but different situations. 

Gross Motor Skills - These are the activities we do using our larger muscle groups; like sitting, walking & jumping. 

HOH Prompting- Hand over hand prompting is a physical prompt where you place your hands over the learner's hand to assist them with completing a motor demand or instruction.

Hypersensitivity - Acute reaction to sensory input (i.e. overly sensitive). 

Hyposensitivity - Little or no reaction to sensory input (i.e. under-sensitive).

IEP- An Individual Education Plan is the individualized curriculum plan that children, adolescents, or adults (usually up to 22) have if they are in special education. An IEP is a legal document, and the IEP process should be taken very seriously and with much consideration for the learner's future. If the child is under 3 years old and receiving services they may have an IFSP, which is an Individual Family Services Plan.

Inclusive Classroom- An inclusive classroom is a classroom with both special needs and typical children learning together. Typically these are taught by General Education teachers, and there may or may not be specially trained paraprofessionals in the room.

Intervention- This is the plan of action or the strategy you will use to change a behavior. An example of an intervention is teaching a learner to use a card to request help instead of tantrumming.

Intraverbal- This is a Verbal Behavior term. Basically, intraverbals are building blocks to conversation skills as its the ability to discuss, describe, or answer a question about something that isn't physically present. Like if someone asks you "What did you do on your vacation last summer?".

Mand- This is a Verbal Behavior term. A mand is basically a "demand". This is being able to request something that one wants or needs.

Mouthing- This refers to placing items/toys, etc. in the mouth. Depending on the individual, licking items could also be considered mouthing.

NET- Natural Environment Training is a type of ABA where learning occurs incidentally and often playfully in natural environments, such as at the bus stop, a local playground, or during dinner.

NT- This stands for Neuro-Typical, and is a term used by some Autistics to describe people who do not have Autism. It basically refers to someone who does not have neurological difficulties or differences. "Neuro-Diverse" would be the opposite term.

"Parents" vs "Professionals"- I use these terms on my blog to distinguish between the two primary readers of my blog. "Professional" includes anyone who works with Autistics, such as ABA Therapists, OT's, SLP's, or teachers. "Parent" includes anyone who cares for is raising an Autistic, such as biological parents, adoptive parents, grandparents, etc. These are all-inclusive terms, and not intended to exclude anyone. 

Perseverative Behavior - Repeating words, songs, phrases, etc., with a high frequency. Many people think this word is synonymous with "Stimming" (see below), but its not because perseverative behavior may or may not be automatically maintained.

Prompt - A form of assistance or cue given to help the learner compete a task and to increase accurate responding. There are several types of prompts: physical prompt, gestural prompt, position prompt, model prompt, verbal prompt, symbolic prompt, and visual prompt, and many more.

Prompt Dependent- Prompt dependency is when an individual has become reliant on being assisted with a task, and stops attempting to do the task independently. Or it could be a learner who has been prompted to do a task a certain way so many times, that it is very difficult for them to change the way they complete the task.

Punisher- Punishers can be tangible, social, physical, etc. In behavior analytic terms, to be considered a punisher the target behavior must decrease.

Receptive- Receptive is listener behavior, and refers to tasks that require a non-vocal action or motor response such as touch, give, or point.

Reinforcer- A reinforcer is something used to motivate a learner to complete a task, or engage in a behavior. Reinforcement can be tangible (toy), social (praise), physical (hugs, kisses), etc. In behavior analytic terms, to be considered a reinforcer the likelihood of future occurrence of the target behavior must increase. Remember that bribery (which isn't effective) is given before the behavior occurs, reinforcement is given after the behavior occurs.

Satiation - When a reinforcer loses it’s effectiveness due to overuse.

Scrolling- This is when a learner responds to a demand by either receptively or expressively linking several responses together. For example, if shown a photo of a firefighter and asked "Who is this?" the learner responds by saying "Doctor/Teacher/Firefighter".

Self injurious behavior (SIB) - Self-injurious behaviors are actions that an individual performs that result in physical injury to the  body. Typical forms of self-injurious
behavior include: hitting oneself with hands or other body parts, head-banging, biting
oneself, picking at skin or sores, etc. 

Stereotypic/Repetitive behaviors – Often referred to as “Stimming” or "Stims". These are self-initiated, often repetitive movements (e.g. rocking, vocalizations, flapping, spinning, finger-flicking, and/or manipulation of inanimate objects) that can be vocal or motoric. For some Autistics these behaviors can occur at very high frequencies, sometimes 100+ times per day. These behaviors often serve automatic reinforcement purposes, but that isn't always the case (function can vary), which is why the blanket term of "self-stimulatory behavior" can be technically incorrect.

Shadow- Also called a School Facilitator; a Shadow is someone who goes into the classroom with a child and helps that child integrate fully into the classroom environment.

Tact- This is a Verbal Behavior term. A tact is being able to label or describe an item with stimuli being present. For example, a learner can tact if they can label the color of a ball if the ball is present.

Target Behavior- This is the behavior of interest you are trying to increase, or decrease. There may be multiple target behaviors being addressed simultaneously, as part of a comprehensive treatment plan.

Task reduction – Reducing the demands put upon the individual in an effort to avoid or decrease frustration levels.

Transitions - May refer to changes from one activity or setting to another such as from an early childhood program to school or from a preferred play activity to a work activity. Transitions are typically very difficult for individuals with ASD, particularly unplanned or abrupt transitions.

VB- VB stands for Verbal Behavior. Verbal Behavior is a type of ABA based on the works of B.F. Skinner that focuses on understanding and teaching language as a behavior, and based on its function.

VB-MAPP Assessment- An assessment and curriculum tool created by Dr. Sundberg. This tool focuses on verbal/language assessment to get a complete snapshot of verbal abilities, strengths, and deficits. Domains include manding, intraverbals, echoics, etc.

Verbal vs Vocal- When people use these terms they typically mean a learner can talk to communicate. However, the behavior analytic term for spoken communication is "vocal", not verbal. "Verbal" can be any form of communication such as sign language or gesturing, while "Vocal" is speech/vocalizations used to communicate.

VI- Variable interval is a way of describing a schedule of reinforcement. If the learner has a VI of 2-3 minutes, that means that between every 2 and 3 minutes they contact reinforcement.

VR- Variable ratio is a way of describing a schedule of reinforcement. If the learner has a VR of 4-6, that means that between every 4th and 6th response they contact reinforcement.

Copyright T. Meadows 2011. All original content on this blog is protected by copyright. Powered by Blogger.
Back to Top